These findings provide evidence to indicate that Neandertal groups not only were small and characterized by low genetic diversity but also were likely to have practiced patrilocal mating behavior.It's not conclusive evidence that Neandertals had a patriarchal culture, but it's certainly consistent with that.
Lalueza-Fox et al. 2011. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups. PNAS 108:250-253.
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